Indonesian independence

After the Bersiap period, negotiations alternated with periods of unrest and violent conflict. On 27 December 1949, Indonesia became independent.

After the Bersiap period, the situation remained hectic. Negotiations alternated with periods of unrest and violent conflict. The Netherlands fought against the Republic of Indonesia in the first and second ‘police operations’ (July-August 1947 and December 1948-January 1949). This led to international pressure on the Netherlands. On 27 December 1949, Indonesia gained its independence as the United States of Indonesia. All Dutch citizens in Indonesia had to choose between the Dutch and Indonesian nationalities. Having to decide whether to stay in Indonesia or to leave the country was extremely difficult, especially for Indo-Europeans. In total, around 300,000 Dutch and Indo-Europeans opted for repatriation and migration to the Netherlands.